SmartREST 1.0

Overview

IMPORTANT

SmartREST 1.0 has been superseded by SmartREST 2.0.

SmartREST 1.0 will be maintained by Cumulocity but no longer actively developed. We highly recommend you to use SmartREST 2.0 for new device integrations.

This section describes how you can use your existing SmartREST 1.0 templates with MQTT.

Note that SmartREST 1.0 was designed for HTTP request/response and does not support the ID-less communication with MQTT. It only uses the MQTT connection to send exactly the same request as you would send using HTTP. Therefore, it comes with some limitations as MQTT is not request/response.

The support for SmartREST 1.0 was added to ease transition if you have an existing implementation using it.

For general information on SmartREST 1.0, refer to Using the REST interface in the Microservice SDK guide.

MQTT ClientId

Although you need to send the IDs in the body of each message with SmartREST 1.0, it is still important to connect with the correct MQTT ClientId.

The MQTT ClientId needs to match the externalId with type c8y_Serial of your device. It is used to assign the correct operations and responses.

Sending and receiving SmartREST 1.0

In general, the following holds for SmartREST requests and responses via MQTT:

Sending SmartREST 1.0

To send data to the server you can publish the same content as you would POST to the SmartREST endpoint /s.

The X-ID header is part of the topic the client needs to publish on.

s/ul/<X-ID>

An X-ID acts as a protocol identifier and identifies the template collection. An X-ID should be immutable: it always identifies exactly the same template collection. If the template collection changes, the X-ID must also change. An X-ID should also be globally unique: select an X-ID that is not used by anyone else. To make sure, we recommend you to use reverse domain names, for example:

com.acme.gw801-v1
com.acme.gw801-v2

We also recommend you to add the protocol version as a postfix in the X-ID.

Processing mode

Since the Cumulocity IoT SmartREST protocol supports TRANSIENT processing mode for avoiding storage of sent data in the database, publishing on MQTT t/ topic instead of s/ topic will only pass the data to real-time processing.

t/ul/<X-ID>

The Cumulocity IoT SmartREST protocol also supports QUIESCENT processing mode for avoiding real-time notifications by publishing on MQTT q/ topic instead of s/ topic. Currently, the QUIESCENT processing mode is applicable for measurements and events only.

q/ul/<X-ID>

The Cumulocity IoT SmartREST protocol also supports CEP processing mode to ensure that data is only sent to the real-time event processing engine with real-time notifications, disabled by publishing on MQTT c/ topic instead of s/ topic. Currently, the CEP processing mode is applicable for measurements and events only.

c/ul/<X-ID>

Receiving SmartREST 1.0

If a template triggers a response template, the returning message will be published by the server on the following topic.

s/dl/<X-ID>

This topic can be subscribed by the client.

Receiving operations

SmartREST 1.0 via HTTP offers the /notification/operations endpoint to listen to realtime operations. You can receive the same content on the following MQTT topic.

s/ol/<X-ID>

Info: To get notifications running, the platform device must have an external ID set which matches the MQTT client ID, otherwise it will not receive notifications.

Info: To get notifications running, the platform device must have an external ID set which matches the MQTT client ID, otherwise it will not receive notifications.

Limitations

MQTT currently does not support request/response. Therefore, if you send a request on the publish topic and receive a response on the subscribe topic, the client cannot securely match that they belong together.

You can counter this limitation by designing the templates in a way that you never need to know what request triggered the response, and the client automatically knows it by the messageId.

The protocol

SmartREST is built upon the well-established HTTP protocol making it work everywhere since most popular platforms provide an HTTP client through which SmartREST can be accessed. SmartREST communicates exclusively through the /s resource using the HTTP POST method for bidirectional communication. The payload data format in CSV (comma-separated values).

The following example shows the communication between a client and the SmartREST endpoint. Note the Authorization header and the custom X-Id header in the request which specifies the SmartREST template to use for this request.

POST /s HTTP/1.0
Authorization: Basic ...
X-Id: ...
Transfer-Encoding: chunked

100,1234456

Each SmartREST request is represented by one row having a unique unsigned integer as its first value determining the action and subsequent values for parameters.

The SmartREST endpoint yields the following response. Note that the HTTP response code is always 200 unless the SmartREST endpoint is not available.

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Transfer-Encoding: chunked

200,1,123456,Request result

Each row yielded by the SmartREST endpoint represents a set of extracted values from the result of a SmartREST request containing a unique unsigned integer, the SmartREST request line number and the extracted data values, respectively.

Info: If the response from Cumulocity IoT REST API was empty (for example like after deleting a Managed Object) then the response from SmartREST would be empty as well, regardless of registered response templates.

Info: Inventory access via SmartREST is limited to inventory objects which are global or for which the client is the owner. Role assignments are not evaluated.

Data format

The CSV (comma-separated values) format is used for communication with the SmartREST endpoint. The following rules must be followed to ensure a frictionless communication.

The same escaping rules apply to messages that will be sent from the server to the client.

Examples

The following examples illustrate the rules stated above:

100,Hello world!
101," I have leading whitespace!"
102,"I have trailing whitespace!"
103,"I contain a line
break!"
104,"I have ""quotes""!"
105,I also have 'quotes'!

Processing mode

Similar to Cumulocity IoT REST implementation every communication in SmartREST which can lead to data update (i. e., POST, PUT, DELETE) supports four processing modes, PERSISTENT, TRANSIENT, QUIESCENT or CEP.

If the data sent to the SmartREST endpoint must be both stored in Cumulocity IoT database and be transferred to real-time processing, then PERSISTENT mode should be set. It is also enabled by default and does not require additional configuration.

In case when it is only needed to communicate data to real-time processing, the TRANSIENT processing mode should be specified by adding it to the header of HTTP request:

POST /s HTTP/1.0
Authorization: Basic ...
X-Id: ...
X-Cumulocity-Processing-Mode: TRANSIENT
Transfer-Encoding: chunked

100,1234456

With TRANSIENT mode in the header the body data is not persisted in Cumulocity IoT database.

During real-time processing, CEP scripts can be used to define if updates should be stored in the database or not.

The QUIESCENT processing mode should be specified if data sent to the SmartREST endpoint must be both stored in the Cumulocity IoT database and be transferred to real-time processing but real-time notifications must be disabled. Currently, the QUIESCENT processing mode is applicable for measurements and events only.

The CEP processing mode should be specified if data sent to the SmartREST endpoint must only be transiently sent to real-time processing engine with real-time notifications disabled. Currently, the CEP processing mode is applicable for measurements and events only.

Info: Events are always delivered to CEP/Apama for all processing modes. This is independent from real-time notifications.

Templates

SmartREST templates are a collection of request and response templates used for the conversion of CSV data and Cumulocity IoT REST API calls. Additionally, SmartREST templates contain a template identifier which is compared to the custom X-Id header field to identify the SmartREST template used for processing.

Each request and response template has a unique numeric identifier called the message identifier which is referenced by the first value of each SmartREST request or response row. To avoid collision with one of the default message identifiers, developers are advised to select message identifiers starting at 100.

Request templates

A request template contains all necessary information to convert a SmartREST request into a corresponding REST API call which is then sent to the platform.

A request template contains the following information:

Response templates

A response template contains the necessary information to extract data values from a platform REST API call response which are then sent back to the client in the CSV data format.

The following information is contained within a response template:

Registration process

This reference guide solely focusses on the registration of SmartREST templates using the SmartREST /s endpoint. Alternatively, templates can also be registered using the platform inventory API.

Before a SmartREST template can be registered, its existence must be checked. If the template already exists, a registration is not necessary and yields an error message.

The existence of a SmartREST template can be checked by making an empty request:

POST /s HTTP/1.0
Authorization: Basic ...
X-Id: ...
Transfer-Encoding: chunked

If the template exists, the following response is yielded where the message identifier 20 indicates that the template exists in the inventory and the parameter 123456 indicates the managed object GId of the template:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Transfer-Encoding: chunked

20,12345

If the template does not exist, a response containing an error message is yielded:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Transfer-Encoding: chunked

40,"No template for this X-ID."

If the template does not exist, a template registration request can be issued using the previously checked X-Id.

Templates can be registered with one single request containing SmartREST template in the form of CSV data. The difference between a template registration request and a normal SmartREST request is that rows are not processed individually during template registration.

POST /s HTTP/1.0
Authorization: Basic ...
X-Id: ...
Transfer-Encoding: chunked

10,100,POST,/inventory/managedObjects,application/vnd.com.nsn.cumulocity.managedObject+json,application/vnd.com.nsn.cumulocity.managedObject+json,,,"{""name"":""Test Device"",""type"":""com_example_TestDevice"",""c8y_IsDevice"":{}}"
11,201,,"$.c8y_IsDevice","$.id"

If the template registration is successful, a response like below will be returned.

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Transfer-Encoding: chunked

20,12345

Syntax

Each request and response template is contained within one row of the template data. Request templates are indicated by the message identifier 10 and response templates by the identifier 11. Should one of those message identifiers occour in a SmartREST request, the entire request is treated as a template. Thus any other message identifier besides 10 and 11 will yield an error.

Request templates

Request templates have the following syntax:

10,<ID>,<METHOD>,<URI>,<CONTENT>,<ACCEPT>,<PLACEHOLDER>,<PARAMS>,<TEMPLATE>

Where:

Here is a set of example requests:

10,100,POST,/alarm/alarms,application/vnd.com.nsn.cumulocity.alarm+json,application/vnd.com.nsn.cumulocity.alarm+json,&&,UNSIGNED NOW,"{""source"":{""id"":""&&""},""type"":""c8y_MyAlarmFromSmartREST"",""text"":""This alarm was created by using SmartREST"",""severity"":""MAJOR"",""status"":""ACTIVE"",""time"":""&&""}"
10,200,POST,/measurement/measurements,application/vnd.com.nsn.cumulocity.measurement+json,application/vnd.com.nsn.cumulocity.measurement+json,&&,UNSIGNED UNSIGNED NOW UNSIGNED,"{""c8y_SmartMeasurement"":{""temp1"":{""value"":&&,""unit"":""C""},""temp2"":{""value"":&&,""unit"":""F""}},""time"":""&&"",""source"":{""id"":""&&""},""type"":""c8y_SmartMeasurement""}"
10,300,PUT,/inventory/managedObjects/&&,application/vnd.com.nsn.cumulocity.managedObject+json,,&&,,"{""c8y_Hardware"":{""model"":""&&"",""revision"":""&&""}}"
10,301,PUT,/alarm/alarms/&&,application/vnd.com.nsn.cumulocity.alarm+json,,&&,,"{""status"":""CLEARED""}"
10,302,PUT,/devicecontrol/operations/&&,application/vnd.com.nsn.cumulocity.operation+json,,&&,,"{""status"":""SUCCESSFUL""}"
10,600,GET,/identity/externalIds/c8y_Serial/&&,,,&&,,
10,601,GET,/devicecontrol/operations?deviceId=##&status=PENDING,,,##,,
10,602,GET,/inventory/managedObjects/&&,,,&&,,

The example requests are also included in our Postman collection. See Using the REST interface > Overview > Using Postman in the Microservice SDK guide to learn how to import the collection into Postman. In the Postman collection, the set of requests is located in SmartREST > Register Request Templates.

Example

Create a device:

10,100,POST,/inventory/managedObjects,application/vnd.com.nsn.cumulocity.managedObject+json,application/vnd.com.nsn.cumulocity.managedObject+json,,,"{""name"":""Test Device"",""type"":""com_example_TestDevice"",""c8y_IsDevice"":{}}"

Explanation:

Update operation to EXECUTING:

10,101,PUT,/devicecontrol/operations/%%, application/vnd.com.nsn.cumulocity.operation+json, application/vnd.com.nsn.cumulocity.operation+json,%%,INTEGER,"{""status"":""EXECUTING""}"

Response templates

Response templates have the following syntax:

11,<ID>,<BASE>,<COND>,<VALUE>[,<VALUE>]

Where:

Example
11,201,,"$.c8y_IsDevice","$.id"

Explanation:

Using SmartREST with multiple X-Ids

SmartREST supports sending of messages for different X-Ids within the same request. In this case the X-Id header mustn’t be used but instead the body will contain additional information about which lines belong to which X-Id.

Sending messages

To indicate the X-Id in the body it is possible to include the following line

15,myxid

All following lines will be handled with the given X-Id until you enter the next X-Id line.

15,myxid1
...
...
15,myxid2
...

Receiving messages

When sending with multiple X-Ids the response also can contain responses from multiple X-Ids. The response will contain an additional line that will indicate which X-Id the following lines are from. The second value in this line indicates how many lines are following from this X-Id.

87,2,myxid1
...
...
87,1,myxid2
...

Checking if templates are registered

You can check if templates are already existing by just include X-Id lines in the body.

15,myxid1
15,myxid2
15,myxid3
15,myxid4

You will get the same response like described in the registration process but for every line.

20,12345
20,12346
40,"No template for this X-ID."
20,12347

Registering templates

Template registration also supports the use of the X-Id in the body. Therefore you can create multiple in a single request.

15,myxid1
10,100,POST,/inventory/managedObjects,application/vnd.com.nsn.cumulocity.managedObject+json,application/vnd.com.nsn.cumulocity.managedObject+json,,,"{""name"":""Test Device"",""type"":""com_example_TestDevice"",""c8y_IsDevice"":{}}"
11,201,,"$.c8y_IsDevice","$.id"
15,myxid2
10,100,POST,/inventory/managedObjects,application/vnd.com.nsn.cumulocity.managedObject+json,application/vnd.com.nsn.cumulocity.managedObject+json,,,"{""name"":""Test Device"",""type"":""com_example_TestDevice"",""c8y_IsDevice"":{}}"
11,201,,"$.c8y_IsDevice","$.id"

SmartREST Real-time Notifications

All available real-time notification endpoints and channels of the Cumulocity IoT platform are also available in a SmartREST syntax. Please have a look at the Real-time notifications API to understand the general functionality of the Bayeux protocol and get an overview of our available endpoints and channels fo real-time notifications.

Using Real-time Notifications with SmartREST

To tell the Cumulocity IoT platform that the real-time notifications should use SmartREST all requests send to the URL must contain the X-Id header.

Message identifiers

Message identifier Message parameters Description
80 None Initial handshake that will return a unique bayeux clientId.
81 clientId,channel Subscribe for the given channel.
82 clientId,channel Unsubscribe for the given channel.
83 clientId Establish conntection for receiving the notifications (long-polling).
84 clientId Disconnect the client from the server.

Handshake

Example request:

80

Example response:

Un1q31d3nt1f13r

Subscribe

Example request:

81,Un1q31d3nt1f13r,/mychannel

Example response:

Unless there is an error there is no specific response for the subscribe

Unsubscribe

Example request:

82,Un1q31d3nt1f13r,/mychannel

Example response:

Unless there is an error there is no specific response for the unsubscribe

Connect

Example request:

83,Un1q31d3nt1f13r

Example response:

The response is formed by the response templates registered via SmartREST for the X-Id. Every received notification via real-time will be parsed with the available templates and every matching template will be returned as response for the connect request.

Keep-Alive:

The Cumulocity IoT platform will send every 10 minutes a space character through an open long-polling connection to detect connection loss. A response for a connect that has been open for a longer time could contain leading space characters in the first line of the response.

Disconnect

Example request:

84,Un1q31d3nt1f13r

Example response:

Unless there is an error there is no specific response for the disconnect

The advice response

The bayeux protocol has a special fragment to tell the client about the recommended settings for timeout of a connection, interval between connect requests and the policy for the follow up after a response for a connect. The advice will be communicated via SmartREST also as a seperate line in the response and can be contained in any response of the above requests.

Response Structure:

86,<timeout>,<interval>,<reconnect policy>

Timeout and interval will be numbers defining the time in millisecons. The reconnect policy can be one of three values:

An advice response line does not need to have every value filled

Example:

86,,10000,retry

Subscribing with multiple templates

If your device uses multiple templates (for example, child devices have a different template than the parent) it is possible to add these templates to your subscribe request. The server will than use all templates (from header and subscribe statement) to parse the responses.

Example request:

POST /notification/operations HTTP/1.0
Authorization: Basic ...
X-Id: mytemplate1

81,Un1q31d3nt1f13r,/mychannel,mytemplate2,mytemplate3

In the case multiple templates are used the response will contain an additional line that indicates which lines are parsed with which templates:

87,{number of parsed rows},{X-Id used to parse the following rows}

Example response:

HTTP/1.0 200 OK

87,2,mytemplate1
100,myvalue
101,myvalue2
87,1,mytemplate3
100,myvalue3

Built-in messages

SmartREST has a variety of built-in messages.

Request messages

Message identifier Message parameters Description
10 Template message identifier
Method
Resource identifier
Content MIME type
Accept MIME type
Placeholder
Request parameters
Template string
Represents a request template. If this message occours in the body, the whole body is treated as a SmartREST template and thus, all messages besides 10 and 11 will yield an error.
11 Template message identifier
Base JSON path
Conditional JSON ath
Value JSON paths
Represents a response template. If this message occours in the body, the whole body is treated as a SmartREST template and thus, all messages besides 10 and 11 will yield an error.
15 X-Id Defines which X-Id to use for the following lines. You must not use the X-Id header when using this line.
61 Device MO GId Poll device credentials during device bootstrapping process. No X-Id header must be present and the device bootstrap authorization must be used.
80 None Initial handshake that will return a unique bayeux clientId. SmartREST real-time notifications.
81 clientId,channel Subscribe for the given channel. SmartREST real-time notifications.
82 clientId,channel Unsubscribe for the given channel. SmartREST real-time notifications.
83 clientId Establish connection for receiving the notifications (long-polling). SmartREST real-time notifications.
84 clientId Disconnect the client from the server. SmartREST real-time notifications.

Response messages

Message identifier Message parameters Description
20 SmartREST Template MO GId Echo response message. Template was found or has been created and everything is OK.
40 None Template not found.
41 Line number (optional) Template creation error.
42 Line number Malformed request line
43 Line number Invalid message identifier.
45 Line number Invalid message arguments.
50 Line number
HTTP response code
Server error. This message occurs when an error happened between the SmartREST proxy and the platform.
70 Line number
Unique device identifier
Tenant ID
Username
Password
Device bootstrap polling response with credentials.
86 timeout,interval,reconnect policy Settings advice for the client using SmartREST real-time notifications.
87 amount of lines, X-Id Indicates which X-Id was used to create the amount of following response lines.

Error messages

Message identifier Error message
41 Cannot create templates for already existing template object
41 Duplicate message identifiers are not allowed
41 Bad request template definition
41 Bad response template definition
41 Bad value type: …
41 Bad pattern
41 Not a valid message identifier for template creation
41 Invalid JsonPath
41 Using JsonPath to refer to a list of objects is not allowed for SmartRest
41 Using Filters (?) in JsonPath is not allowed for SmartRest
41 No content type supported for {GET or DELETE} templates.
41 No template string supported for {GET or DELETE} templates.
41 No content type found for {POST or PUT} templates.
41 No template string found for {POST or PUT} templates.
41 Values are only supported for templates with placeholder.
42 Malformed Request
43 Invalid message identifier
45 No arguments supported
45 Wrong number of arguments
45 Value is not a {value type}: {value}