Use Case: Welding Defect Detection


Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding is an arc welding process in which a tungsten electrode is used to produce the weld. The electrode is not consumed, and the electrode and weld pool are protected from contamination by an inert gas. A few defects that can occur during this process are lack of fusion, misalignment, and burn through. The TIG welding process is complex and expensive which makes early defect detection desirable.

One way to catch these defects is with non-destructive testing, in which a weld is inspected visually. In this demo, we use images of TIG welds to build a deep learning model to classify images as containing defects or being defect-free. By leveraging deep learning techniques, we can thus automate inspection of weld quality.

In this use case, we take the following steps:


Download the following: The archive contains the entire project:

Running the demo requires:

Welding defect detection

In this section, we describe the steps to create a welding defect detection model using Machine Learning Workbench and the included data set. Follow the sections below to learn about the data, how to train a MobileNet model with transfer learning, how to deploy the model to production, and how to use it to detect defects in images of welds.

Data description

The data included with this project is based on this dataset available on Kaggle: TIG Aluminium 5083. It is not necessary to download the Kaggle dataset. The project data has been changed from the Kaggle version, and has the following properties:

The train and validation sets are used during model training. The test set is used at the very end to check model performance.

Uploading the project to MLW

Log in to the MLW and follow the steps described in Machine Learning Workbench > Upload a project to upload the project to MLW. This might take a few minutes depending on your internet bandwidth.

After the project is uploaded sucessfully, navigate to the Data folder of the MLW and select the ZIP file. You should see the metadata of the uploaded data set. You should also see 2 test data files, 3 code files, and 1 model file within the project.

Training the model

  1. Uploading project uploaded a Jupyter Notebook file named WeldingDefectDetectionDemo.ipynb.

  2. In the Code folder of the MLW, click weldingDefectDetectionDemo.ipynb to view the metadata of the file.

  3. Click the edit icon Edit to open the Jupyter Notebook and execute all the cells in sequence.

The ‘Load Libraries’ section includes commented-out code to install necessary libraries if they are not already installed. Uncomment these lines if needed, and use the !pip install <library name> command to install any other needed libraries.

Once all the cells are executed successfully, a model named weldingDefectModel.onnx is saved to the Model folder.

Deploying the model using the inference pipeline

Once the model is trained and available for serving in the form of an ONNX file, you can create an inference pipeline for deploying the model to production.

The Code folder contains the scripts and, which we will use along with the model (.onnx file) to create the pipeline.

def process(content):
    import io
    from PIL import Image
    import numpy as np

    im ='RGB')       
    x = np.array(im)
    x = x.astype(np.float32)
    x = x/255.
    x = np.expand_dims(x, axis=(0))
    return {"input":x}
def process(content):
    import numpy as np
    f_cont = content[0][0]
    labels = ["no defect","defect"]
    pred_label = labels[np.argmax(f_cont)]
    return {"probability":f_cont.tolist(),"class":pred_label}
  1. Follow the steps described in Machine Learning Workbench > Inference pipeline and create an inference pipeline named weldingPipeline.pipeline by selecting ‘weldingDefectModel.onnx’ as Model, ‘’ as Pre-processing Script and ‘’ as Post-processing Script.

This creates a new pipeline file named weldingPipeline.pipeline in the Inference Pipeline folder. You can see the metadata of the pipeline file by clicking it.

  1. Deploy the pipeline to production by clicking the deploy icon Deploy.

Making predictions using the deployed pipeline

Now that the inference pipeline is successfully deployed to production and available for serving, you can make predictions using the test data.

  1. Uploading the project uploaded the testDefectImage.PNG and testNoDefectImage.PNG test images.

  2. Navigate to the Data folder and select testDefectImage.PNG. Predict the class of image using weldingPipeline.

The predictions file is stored in the Data folder with the name testDefectImage_timeStamp.json. Edit the predictions JSON file to view the predictions.