This glossary lists a variety of technical terms and concepts used in the Cumulocity IoT products and documentation and provides explanations for its usage in the context of Cumulocity IoT.

Administration application

The Administration application is one of the default applications of Cumulocity IoT. The Administration application enables administrators to manage their tenants, users, roles and applications. It also allows them to configure various settings for their accounts.

For details see Administration in the User guide.


Agents are software components which translate the device-specific interface protocol into a single reference protocol and enable secure bi-directional communication in various network architectures.


An alarm represents an event that requires an intervention. The user or operator of the system must take action to resolve the alarm (like a power outage).

Analytics Builder

Analytics Builder is part of the Cumulocity IoT Streaming Analytics application. It allows you to build analytic models that transform or analyze streaming data in order to generate new data or output events. The models are capable of processing data in real time.

See also EPL Apps.

For details see Overview > Analytics Builder in the Streaming Analytics guide.


The Cumulocity IoT User Interface (UI) is based on applications. By default, the Cumulocity IoT UI consists of three main default applications: Administration, Cockpit and Device Management.

Cumulocity IoT is designed to accommodate arbitrary vertical IoT applications in addition to its generic functionality. These applications can have two forms:

For details see Developing applications.

Application switcher

The application switcher is a UI component which shows all Cumulocity IoT applications the user has access to and allows switching between these applications.


Assets represent business objects in general like buildings, machines, production units or cars. In Cumulocity IoT, assets are organized in hierarchies which are composed of two types of objects:

For details see Cockpit > Managing assets in the User guide.


Used in the context of Analytics Builder.

Blocks are the basic processing units of the model. Each block has some predefined functionality and processes data accordingly. A block can have a set of parameters and a set of input ports and output ports.

Cockpit application

The Cockpit application is one of the default applications of Cumulocity IoT. It provides options to manage and monitor IoT assets and data from a business perspective, like managing assets, visualizing data, working with dashboards and managing reports.

For details see Cockpit in the User guide.

Cumulocity IoT Core

Cumulocity IoT is the foundation of the Cumulocity IoT platform. It comprises all major components such as the default applications (Administration, Cockpit and Device Management), the Cumulocity IoT operational store, microservices, REST API, MQTT API, and smart rules.

Cumulocity IoT DataHub

Cumulocity IoT Datahub is a Cumulocity IoT application for offloading data from the operational store of Cumulocity IoT to a data lake and querying the data lake contents.

For details see the DataHub guide.

Cumulocity IoT Edge

Cumulocity IoT Edge is the onsite solution of Cumulocity IoT intended to run as a local software application on industrial PC’s or local servers.

For details see the Cumulocity IoT Edge guide.

Cumulocity IoT Machine Learning

Cumulocity IoT Machine Learning simplifies the complexity of the data science process across the entire machine learning lifecycle from model training to deployment. Cumulocity IoT Machine Learning is composed of two applications:

For details see the Machine Learning guide.

Cumulocity IoT operational store

Internal datastore of Cumulocity IoT where all data (such as alarms, events, inventory, and measurements) are stored in so-called base collections.

Cumulocity IoT Sensor App

The Cumulocity IoT Sensor App is a free smartphone application available for iOS and Android smartphones. The app is designed to collect measurements from your smartphone, nearby Bluetooth device sensors, and vehicle On-board Debug (OBD) sensors, and send them to the Cumulocity IoT platform. It has a straightforward registration workflow to get you up and running quickly and provides an easy way to get data into Cumulocity IoT.

For details see Cumulocity IoT Sensor App in the User guide.

Cumulocity IoT Streaming Analytics

Using the Streaming Analytics application, you can add your own logic to your IoT solution for immediate processing of incoming data from devices or other data sources. These user-defined operations can, for example, alert applications of new incoming data, create new operations based on the received data (such as sending an alarm when a threshold for a sensor is exceeded), or trigger operations on devices. The operation logic is based on Apama’s Event Processing Language (EPL).

See also Analytics Builder and EPL Apps.

For details see the Streaming Analytics guide.

Data broker

The data broker functionality is an optional feature in Enterprise tenants which lets you share data selectively with other tenants.

For details see Enterprise tenant > Using the data broker in the User guide.

Data explorer

Part of the Cockpit application. The data explorer visualizes all data points (that is, measurements or sensor data) of either a particular asset or of all assets.

For details see Cockpit > Data explorer in the User guide.

Data lake

Used in the context of DataHub.

A data lake serves as a storage container for offloaded data either on the basis of ADLS Gen2/Azure Storage (Azure), S3 (Amazon), NAS, or HDFS.

Data point library

The Data point library provides a collection of data points with default values for data point properties which serve as templates that can be applied easily to your data points from different devices.

For details see Cockpit > Data point library in the User guide.


Devices are a special type of asset. They can constitute a hierarchy of devices. In the Cumulocity IoT inventory their digital twins are represented as managed objects.

Device Management application

The Device Management application is one of the default applications of Cumulocity IoT. The Device Management application provides functionalities for connecting, managing and monitoring devices and allows to control and troubleshoot devices remotely.

For details see Device Management in the User guide.

Device protocol

A device protocol defines how data from a specific device type should be transferred into the Cumulocity IoT platform. It contains protocol-specific information about where the data is obtained from, how to transform it, and how to store it in Cumulocity IoT. The definition of the device protocol differs based on the underlying protocol used by the device (for example, Modbus, LoRa, OPC UA or LWM2M).

For details see the Protocol integration guide.

Digital twin

A digital twin is a digital representation of physical or virtual assets. Devices, sensors and tools are examples of physical assets, virtual assets can for example be processes or rules. In Cumulocity IoT they are represented as managed objects.

Enterprise tenant

A tenant type in the Cumulocity IoT tenant hierarchy.

Enterprise tenants offer additional administrative functionality compared to a Standard tenant, the major difference being multi-tenancy. Using an Enterprise tenant, you can create and manage subtenants, manage the subscribed applications/features of the subtenants, and invoice subtenants based on usage statistics. Moreover, Enterprise tenants offer individual customization features, such as Branding for the creation of an individual look & feel.

See also Standard tenant and Management tenant.

Event Processing Language (EPL)

On top of Cumulocity IoT you can use the Apama streaming analytics engine to define business operations for real-time processing. The operation logic is implemented in Apama’s Event Processing Language (EPL). EPL covers statements, which are organized into actions and monitors. Monitor files can be edited directly from within Cumulocity IoT using the Cumulocity IoT Streaming Analytics application. Alternatively, you can install Apama on your local machine and develop your applications in an Eclipse-based development environment. You can deploy your monitor files as Apama applications to Cumulocity IoT.

For details see Real-time processing > Using the Apama Event Processing Language (EPL).

EPL Apps

EPL Apps is part of the Cumulocity IoT Streaming Analytics application. It allows you to develop EPL apps (that is, single *.mon files) directly within Cumulocity IoT, written in Apama EPL. You can also import existing *.mon files as EPL apps into Cumulocity IoT. When you activate an EPL app from the Streaming Analytics application, you deploy it to Cumulocity IoT.

See also Event Processing Language (EPL) and Analytics Builder.

For more details see Overview > EPL apps in the Streaming Analytics guide.


In the context of Cumulocity IoT:

Events contain real-time information from the sensor network, such as the triggering of a door sensor. Events can also be alarms. In addition, security-related events are shown as audit logs.

In the context of Apama:

Conceptually, an event is an occurrence of a particular item of interest at a specific time. Apama events are used for all interactions with Cumulocity IoT, such as listening for and creating device measurements, alarms and (Cumulocity IoT) events.

GA release

A GA release is a release with general availability (GA). GA releases are typically provided in a 3-month cycle. They are published on all Cumulocity IoT public cloud instances and they are provided to customers with an on-premises instance through the Software Download Center on the Software AG Empower Portal. GA releases include new features, improvements and fixes.

Global roles

Role type in Cumulocity IoT’s' permission concept. Global roles contain permissions that apply to all data within a tenant.

See also Inventory roles and Permissions.

For details see Security aspects > Access control and Administration > Managing permissions > Global roles in the User guide.


The inventory is a collection of all stored managed objects in a tenant.

Inventory roles

Role type in Cumulocity IoT’s' permission concept. Inventory roles contain permissions that apply to managed objects.

See also Global roles and Permissions.

For details see Administration > Managing permissions > Inventory roles in the User guide.


Lightweight M2M (LWM2M) is a traffic and resource-optimized protocol to remotely manage IoT devices. Cumulocity IoT provides support for easily connecting any LWM2M device to the platform.

For details see LWM2M in the Protocol integration guide.

Machine Learning Engine

Machine Learning Engine is an application that enables machine learning/IT operators to manage and operationalize production-ready models for generating predictions on data gathered from connected devices. These capabilities can be leveraged either from a web browser via an easy to use UI or programmatically via REST API. Machine Learning Engine provides a high-performance inference platform with deployed models exposed as endpoints that can be leveraged from Streaming Analytics and other applications for real-time inference.

For details see Introduction > Machine Learning Engine in the Machine Learning guide.

Machine Learning Workbench

Machine Learning Workbench is an application that enables data scientists and machine learning engineers to build, train and evaluate high-quality machine learning models using an intuitive, easy to use, no-code UI and a programmer-friendly Jupyter Notebook based environment. Machine Learning Workbench provides seamless access to data residing in Cumulocity IoT operational store or any cloud data lakes with visual tools to ingest and transform the data.

For details see Introduction > Machine Learning Workbench in the Machine Learning guide.

Maintenance release

Cumulocity provides Maintenance releases for supported Cumulocity IoT GA releases. A Maintenance release contains fixes and improvements for a GA release but no new features.

Managed objects

In Cumulocity IoT, all assets are represented as managed objects. Cumulocity IoT comes with a predefined set of types, for example devices, groups, and agents.

Hierarchical structures of managed objects allow for the implementation of complex structures like a factory with many machines which consist of devices and sensors which can report events, alarms, and measurements.

Management tenant

The Management tenant builds the highest level of the Cumulocity IoT tenant hierarchy. Every Cumulocity IoT deployment is delivered with a Management tenant. The Management tenant is used to administer all tenants within the same deployment on platform level and thus provides full control of the platform.

See also Standard tenant and Enterprise tenant.


A measurement contains one or multiple numerical values taken at a single point in time for a single asset. A sequence of measurements forms a time series.


Microservices are server-side applications. Microservices can be used to develop for example the following functionality on top of Cumulocity IoT:

Microservices are deployed as Container images to Cumulocity IoT, and follow specific conventions. They typically provide one REST API, which is available under /service/ and access Cumulocity IoT using this REST API.

For details see Developing applications > Microservices.


Used in the context of Analytics Builder.

A model is a container which can have a network of Blocks connected to each other with wires. The behavior of a block inside a model does not depend on other blocks. There can be multiple instances of the same block in a model where each instance may behave differently, depending on the configurable parameters or the inputs connected to the block.


Cumulocity IoT supports MQTT, an OASIS standard messaging protocol, for device integration.

For details see Device integration using MQTT in the Device SDK guide.


With the Enterprise tenant concept, Cumulocity IoT supports full multi-tenancy. All data related to a tenant is stored in a dedicated database. This includes user data, inventory, events, measurements, operations and alarms.

For details see Tenant hierarchy > Multi-tenancy.

The navigator is an element in the UI of the Cumulocity IoT platform. It is located at the left of the UI. The navigator provides a list of menu items which lead you to the various pages of the application you are currently using.


OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) is a metric for measuring the efficiency, effectiveness and performance of production processes, by breaking them down into the three components Availability, Performance, and Quality. The Cumulocity IoT OEE application uses machine data, master data and planning data from machines and machine lines to calculate the factors of the OEE calculation.

For details see the Cumulocity IoT OEE guide.


OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) is a standard to enable the communication between industrial devices. OPC UA is designed to work across technology boundaries (cross-platform).

One component of the OPC UA integration in Cumulocity IoT is the OPC UA device gateway. The OPC UA device gateway is a stand-alone Java program that communicates with OPC UA server(s) and the Cumulocity IoT platform. It stores data into the Cumulocity IoT database via REST. The gateway must be registered as Cumulocity IoT device.

For details see OPC UA in the Protocol integration guide.


Operations are cloud-to-device messages so that devices can be remotely controlled and managed by Cumulocity IoT. Typical operations are installing a new software, switching a relay in a power meter or sending a credit to a vending machine.

For details see Cumulocity IoT’s domain model > Operations.


The ability to execute certain functionality in the Cumulocity IoT platform is based on permissions. Permissions define explicitly what functionality can be executed by a user. Cumulocity IoT distinguishes read permissions and administration permissions. Read permissions enable users to read data. Administration permissions enable users to create, update and delete data.

To manage permissions more easily, they are grouped into roles. Every user can be associated with a number of roles, adding up permissions of the user.

See also Global roles and Inventory roles.

Real-time processing

Cumulocity IoT allows developers and power users to run real-time IoT business logic inside Cumulocity IoT based on a high-level real-time processing language, that is, Apama’s Event Processing Language (EPL).

For details see Real-time processing.


In Cumulocity IoT, REST (Representational State Transfer) is used for all external communication with IoT devices, other web applications or back-office IT systems.


The Cumulocity IoT REST API is an interface that allows for communication between the Cumulocity IoT platform and other systems via HTTP and REST. It allows the user to perform operations and process data by issuing a simple request using any HTTP client such as a web browser.

For details see the Cumulocity IoT OpenAPI Specification.

Sensor library

Cumulocity IoT includes a sensor library to model specific sensing and controlling skills across device products. A single device can have many sensor and control characteristics. The sensor library covers basic sensors and controls, and is supported by the Cumulocity IoT client libraries. It also enables writing powerful generic IoT software plugins. Technically, the sensor library defines standard fragments for inventory, measurements, events and device control, following the naming convention.

For details see Cumulocity IoT’s domain model > The sensor library and Cumulocity IoT’s domain model > Inventory.

Smart rules

Cumulocity IoT includes a rule engine to analyze data in realtime and to perform actions based on data. To easily create rules, the Cockpit application includes a “smart rules” builder which allows you to create rules from templates (so-called smart rule templates).

For details see Cockpit > Smart rules in the User guide.

Standard tenant

At the bottom of the Cumulocity IoT tenant hierarchy you can find single tenants which are represented by the concept of Standard tenant. A Standard tenant offers most of the device management and monitoring functionality of the Cumulocity IoT platform, but has certain limitations when it comes to administrative aspects.

See also Enterprise tenant and Management tenant.


The application concept of Cumulocity IoT includes a basic application marketplace. Tenants can be subscribed to applications which have been deployed by their superior tenant (Management tenant or Enterprise tenant). Granting access to subtenants and subscribing to applications is done in the Administration application.

For details see Developing applications > Subscribing applications and Administration > Managing applications in the User guide.


Tenants are physically separated data spaces with a separate URL, which has a specific set of users, a separate application management and no data sharing by default. Users in a single tenant share the same URL and the same data space.

See also Tenant hierarchy.

Tenant domain

A key feature of the Enterprise tenant is the ability to operate the Cumulocity IoT platform using a custom domain name. This means that you can configure the platform to serve you and your customers using a host name of choice.

For details see Enterprise tenant > Customizing your platform in the User guide.

Tenant hierarchy

The Cumulocity IoT tenant concept builds a 3-level hierarchy, including the following levels from bottom to top:

These three levels differ in their scope, particularly with regards to administration.

See also Tenant hierarchy, Standard tenant, Enterprise tenant and Management tenant.

Tenant ID

The unique ID of a tenant or subtenant. When a tenant is created, it gets an auto-generated ID, which cannot be changed. The tenant ID is shown in the user dropdown menu in the UI.

Thin Edge is an open-source and cloud-agnostic IoT framework designed for lightweight IoT devices. It offers simple and secure device connectivity, freedom of the cloud platform, for example Cumulocity IoT, and freedom of the programming language.

Web applications

A Cumulocity IoT web application can be:

All subscribed web applications are hosted by Cumulocity IoT and the application will be made available through a URL like this:

For details see Developing applications > Web applications.


The Cumulocity IoT Web SDK enables you to develop web applications that can be:

For details see the Web SDK guide.


Widgets are useful to track information, for example on alarms, assets or applications, or provide maps, quick links and more in dashboards or reports. Cumulocity IoT provides preset widget types for various purposes.

For details see Cockpit > Widgets collection and Cockpit > Using widgets in dashboards and reports in the User guide.


Used in the context of Analytics Builder.

Wires are used to connect two or more blocks with each other. They are used for all data transfer between the output port of one block and the input port of another block.